Human commensal microbiota is the sum total of all microbial flora naturally co-habiting in human body and the collection of all their genes is called Human Microbiome. The commensal flora and their gene products plays a critical role in maintaining our health and longevity
The human microbiota is the aggregate of microorganisms that resides on the surface and in deep layers of skin, in the saliva and oral mucosa, in the conjunctiva, and in the gastrointestinal tracts and the human microbiome refer to their genomes. The microbiome is reckoned to have around 3 million functional genes compared to human beings 23,000 and the far larger genome of the microbiome has correspondingly greater capabilities in modulating human health and well being. Microbiome’s health and diversity is a growing theme in medical research for treating autoimmune, infectious, and metabolic diseases.
Everyone’s got a personal collection of microbiota. You could think of yours as your unique internal pet—at up to 3 percent of your body mass requiring nurturing and feeding. In turn, your microbiota provides essential services: extracting energy from food, absorbing and generating vitamins and amino acids and forming barriers against infective invaders. New studies are showing your microbiota might also fight diabetes, obesity and cancer; stimulate your immune system; break down toxins, and boost your overall health.
The gut microbiota has a crucial role in metabolic health, but researchers are only just determining the mechanisms underpinning this effect. Studies have found that specific class of bacteria that degrades mucin in the gut lining and can have beneficial effects on metabolic disorders.