It is well known that celiac disease has genetic and immunological mechanisms, however, it is also believed that environmental factors, including the microbiota, may play into the pathophysiology of the Celiac disease. A recent study has shown that those with celiac disease also had intestinal dysbiosis or a microbial imbalance. It appears that some of the altered genes responsible for celiac disease may also directly affect bacterial colonization in the gastrointestinal tract. However, the dysbiosis itself can also provoke an abnormal response to gluten in affected individuals.
Celiac disease can also cause other complications in the microbiota. The gluten-free diet that is used to treat celiac disease can influence the composition of the intestinal microbiota. It has been shown that the gluten-free diet promotes a reduction of beneficial bacteria, such as Lactobacilli, while increases the amount of harmful bacteria, such as E. coli. Additional studies are being done to determine whether intestinal dysbiosis causes or is caused by celiac disease. However, probiotics and prebiotics may still be useful for the treatment and possibly even the prevention of celiac disease.
PASSOS, Maria do Carmo Friche, & MORAES-FILHO, Joaquim Prado. (2017). INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA IN DIGESTIVE DISEASES. Arquivos de Gastroenterologia, Epub July 06, 2017.https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0004-2803.201700000-31